Researchers identify mechanism that resolves inflammation

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Rheumatoid arthritis causes severe inflammation of the joints. FAU researchers have now discovered a mechanism that suppresses this inflammation. (Photo: Department of Medicine 3/FAU)

Research team discovers mechanism that stops chronic inflammation

Researchers at the Department of Medicine 3 have discovered a new molecular process that reverses chronic inflammation. In a recent study they showed how inflammation can be prevented by an endogenous immune response that is usually triggered by a worm infection.

Chronic inflammatory joint diseases such as arthritis – which affects around 800,000 people in Germany, the majority of whom are women – have a severe impact on sufferers. They involve painful inflammation and can in the worst case even lead to the destruction of the joints.

A team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. A. Bozec from the Department of Medicine 3 is investigating which mechanisms can cause inflammation – and have taken an unusual approach to their work.

An effective combination

Previous studies have shown that a particular type of worm infection activates two different defense cells, type 2 T helper cells (Th2) and eosinophils. Researchers have identified the same defense cells in the joint fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In their study Prof. Dr. A. Bozec and Prof. Dr. G. Schett investigated how the worm infection affects joint inflammation and discovered that the infection caused Th2 cells and eosinophils to collect in the joint – which suppressed inflammation. Prof. Dr. G. Schett explains:

What is fascinating about these findings is that a mechanism of the immune system whose fundamental role is to fight worm infections can resolve inflammation such as arthritis.

Prof. Dr. A. Bozec elaborates that the protective effect results from the interaction of the two types of defence cells:

Our most important discovery is that together Th2 cells and eosinophils stop inflammation.

The researchers’ findings could lead to a new approach to treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis that would allow the inflammatory reaction to be prevented in the long-term.

Publication within the Collaborative Research Center 1181

The study, which was recently published in Nature Communications, was conducted within the framework of Collaborative Research Center 1181 by researchers from the Department of Medicine 3 and the Division of Infection Biology. The interdisciplinary center, established at FAU by the German Research Foundation in 2016, is the first of its kind in Germany that investigates the mechanisms behind the resolution of inflammation.

Further information

Prof. Dr. Aline Bozec

Phone: 09131/85-29032